Characteristics of Cow
Overall Characteristics :
- The Indian cow belongs to Bass Indicus variety.
- High shoulder, flappy under-neck, and Suryaketu nerve on the back are easy differentiators of the variety.
- It is believed that Suryaketu nerve absorbs medicinal essences from atmosphere and makes milk, urine and cow dung more nourishing.
- High shoulder, flappy hanging dewlaps under-neck, and long ears increase the area of skin that sweats and keeps the body cooler. This is apt for our climate.
- Sweat glands are wider and the sweat is aromatic, protecting from monsoon-insects.
- The cow drives away insects by swift muscle movements
- With small hair, skin remains clean.
- With all these uniqueness, an Indian ox can work with comfort in rain and shine.
- Long enough to touch ground.
- Tail joint is unique and allows swirling around till the neck.
- It also swats flies and insects.
- Joined, does not gather twigs and dirt.
- Indian ox has smaller and strong hoof. This is suited for ploughing and pulling cart.
- Some of the Indian varieties can work without horse-shoes.
- Unlike tractor, the ox does not harden the top soil and kill the helpful insects.
- Different actions and features of the body are controlled by chromosomes.
- As a cow would always have adequate quantity of chromosome, there is no infertility for generations.
Life Activities :
- Basal metabolic rate(BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment.
- Indian cow has a lower BMR. In draught it can survive with small quantity of food. Though it becomes weaker then, it recovers fast when it gets nourishment.
- Such temporary difficulties do not later affect its milk yield or fertility.
Immunity to Disease :
- Cows are born with immunity to diseases. There is no difference between the ones grazing in the fields or kept in the sheds.
- This reduces the expenditure on their medical care.
- For this reason, America and Europe import Indian cows, cross breed with local variety to improve their immunity.
- Indian ox has strong muscles and long legs. They work for long hours in difficult conditions.
- High shoulder holds the plough well.
- Cows can be housed in very ordinary shed and even under a tree.
- Some Indian varieties require very little food.
- In villages they generally roam around fields and forests through the day.
- Some Indian breed cows give up to 20 litres of milk per day.
- Main varieties of Indian milch cows are Gir, Sahival, Tharparker, Rati and Sindhi.
- We can improve other breeds by better care and nourishment.
- Constitutes cow urine, cow dung, milk, curd and ghee.
- Used as food, medicine, manure and insecticide.
- They increase immunity to diseases.
- Without side effects, they fight cancer, hypertension, skin diseases, and urinary diseases.